A number of gastrointestinal investigations apart from endoscopy may be very helpful in establishing a diagnosis and in deciding the best treatment. These include:

Ano-rectal physiology studies

Useful when there is a history of faecal incontinence, constipation, straining, anal pain or suspected prolapse. The strength of the anal sphincter muscles (anal manometry) is assessed to determine if they are working normally. The sensitivity of the rectum to balloon distension is usually checked at the same time (rectal compliance). The nerve supply (pudenal nerve stimulation) to the anal muscles may also be examined to find out if there has been any damage to the nerves supplying the anal sphincter.


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